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The Second Edition of Curriculum Theory: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns by Michael Stephen Schiro presents a clear, unbiased, and rigorous description of the major curriculum philosophies that have influenced educators and schooling over the last century. The author analyzes four educational visions―Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Learner Centered, and Social Reconstruction―to enable readers to reflect on their own educational beliefs and more productively interact with educators who might hold different beliefs.

About the Author

Michael Stephen Schiro has taught at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. He received his bachelorate from Tufts University and his doctorate from Harvard University. In the 1960’s he worked for school desegregation n North Carolina. In the 1970’s he worked to improve urban education in Lowell, Massachusetts. He was chair of the Department of Teacher Education and School Administration at Boston College in the 1980’s. He specializes in mathematics education and curriculum theory, and taught courses in mathematics education, curriculum theory, computer education, literacy, and multicultural education at Boston College from 1974 to 2009, when he retired. He published eleven books with such diverse titles as Integrating Children′s Literature and Mathematics in the Classroom, Oral Story Telling and Teaching Mathematics, Mega-Fun Math Games, Curriculum for Better Schools: The Great Ideological Debate, and Tan and the Shape Changer.

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Charles Taylor
3.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A book to stimulate thought — and disagreement
Reviewed in the United States on October 27, 2017
At the recent MoodleMoot in Sydney there were a number of presentations which used Schiro’s ideas on the four types of curriculum as grounds for the use of particular features of the Moodle Learning Management System. The four types were called Scholar Academic, Social... See more
At the recent MoodleMoot in Sydney there were a number of presentations which used Schiro’s ideas on the four types of curriculum as grounds for the use of particular features of the Moodle Learning Management System. The four types were called Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Learner Centred and Social Reconstruction. They were described briefly as concentrating on teaching the established disciplines, concentrating on preparing students to take their place in society, concentrating on developing the natural growth of the child, and concentrating on developing students activism and ability to reform society. My first reaction was that this hardly seemed like an exhaustive list of possible aims, and there didn’t seem to be any single organizing principle for the list. Why four types, rather than five or six or sixty? And why these four, why not pick others - say overt and hidden curriculum, or vocational and religious education, etc. So I thought I’d read his book to find out...

The short answer, I discovered, as to why these four and not other possibilities is that Schiro is basing his typology on four influential streams of curriculum concerns in the history of US debates - so, this division is not logically motivated, but due to the particular concerns that have repeatedly surfaced in his own country. Fair enough - it is hardly a rare thing for writers on education to assume that their parochial debates are of universal significance! Or, for US writers in general, for that matter!

However, what I did find problematic was that after the briefest nod to the thinkers whose ideas he was summarizing, that the remainder of the book consisted of assertions about what each of these four “ideal types” said about various aspects of education — assessment, aims, teaching styles, etc. The book is full of tables which purport to display the answers each approach gives to different questions. But these are not actual answers from actual people in these traditions but rather Schiro’s speculations about what the answers would be, given the characterization he has developed for each “ideal type”.

This is where the book is thought provoking - clearly delineating and fixing in one’s mind a prototypical image of each approach provides a help in thinking through curriculum ideas. But it is also the source of weakness - each tradition is reduced to a straw man. The scholar academic tradition has as its central aim the reproduction and preservation of the academic discipline structure of the universities. The Learner Centred curriculum is concerned purely with the here and now of the student’s current interests and preoccupations. The Social Reconstruction curriculum is concerned with indoctrinating children. The Social Efficiency curriculum simply aims at the reproduction of society as it is.

I doubt that any actual curriculum thinker would accept these characterizations as adequate descriptions of their own thought.

So much of this book is spent elaborating upon Schiro’s “ideal types” that there is no time spent on discussion of real ideas by actual people in real contexts. Of course, this would be messy and complicated and there are many other books which do concern themselves with such things — but I feel that this book has gone too far in its oversimplification.

In the world today, there are real decisions to be made about real curriculum issues which have real consequences for children. I don’t think that the approach of this book, which reduces curriculum development to choice between ideologies has much to offer as a guide to dealing with these issues.
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Jenny Johnson
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
From Conflicting Visions to Systematic Improvment
Reviewed in the United States on December 14, 2015
In Curriculum Theory: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns, Michael Stephen Schiro provides a rigorous description and outlook on the major curriculum ideologies that have developed over the 20th century and that still largely impact our education system today. The... See more
In Curriculum Theory: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns, Michael Stephen Schiro provides a rigorous description and outlook on the major curriculum ideologies that have developed over the 20th century and that still largely impact our education system today. The four curriculum ideologies identified are Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Learner Centered, and Social Reconstruction. Schiro reminds the readers that our actions, as educators and curriculum developers, are largely a combination of the characteristics of each ideology and furthermore, that our beliefs may still be centered on one ideology. In the introduction, readers are asked to complete a short inventory that allows them to visually graph their curriculum actions and beliefs. This gives you, as a reader, a perspective of how your experiences have impacted the lens for which you view education. Then as you continue to read, you will notice your lens broadening and shifting based on the perspectives you gain through each chapter. This is the purpose of the text, as described by Schiro (2013). The purpose is “provide readers with a sympathetic perspective on the visions of schooling” and “give readers a perspective on their own philosophies of education” (p. 3). As an educator in the current reform movement, I found these aims largely vital in ensuring systematic improvement in our schools.
The four middle chapters go into detail over each curriculum ideology. In each chapter, Schiro outlines the ideology’s educational aims, view of children, perspective on learning, concept of teaching, epistemological beliefs of knowledge, and concerns of assessment and evaluation. Throughout the chapter, your understanding the ideology’s conceptual framework is further developed through a thorough description of the historical framework. The historical framework provides readers with an understanding of how the ideologies have developed, major influences of the ideologies’ development, and how the ideologies have altered throughout the last century. Furthermore, Schiro’s extensive overview of the ideologies’ conceptual framework provides the readers with a thorough understanding in order to make adjustments and/or shifts in personal curriculum beliefs situated among the ideologies. The final two chapters assist the readers in further exploring the interaction of the ideologies and the dynamic nature of change in our own beliefs and the coalesced beliefs of our education system.
In the concluding statement of the text, Schiro states, “And I hope this perspective will provide educators with the personal insights and power they need to make themselves into the people they want to be as they confront the multiple visions for the future of education that compete for their allegiance” (p. 261). This statement exemplifies the future of educational reform. Exceptional leadership begins first by becoming more reflective in our actions and thoughts through “personal insights” and identification of our core beliefs. It is through this process, that we begin to possess the skills needed in order to create a shared vision for our school based on collective ideologies. Moreover, it is through this shared vision that we are able to develop a culture of continuous improvement. Schiro’s extensive text will provide teacher leaders with an understanding of the dynamic nature of change and systematic thinking in order to respect each ideology’s strengths and weaknesses and move forward with an action plan of improvement.
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Melissa Holmes
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Exploring Ideologies and Reflecting on Self
Reviewed in the United States on December 12, 2015
This second edition of Michael Schiro’s (2013) text is designed to provide a thorough discussion of four distinct curriculum ideologies: Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Learner Centered, and Social Reconstruction. Schiro’s writing is easy to read and his earnest tone... See more
This second edition of Michael Schiro’s (2013) text is designed to provide a thorough discussion of four distinct curriculum ideologies: Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Learner Centered, and Social Reconstruction. Schiro’s writing is easy to read and his earnest tone helps draws the reader into personal reflection on the topic. The first chapter includes a brief overview of each ideology and describes the intended audience, which includes curriculum practitioners, disseminators, evaluators, advocates, developers, and theorists. He clearly explains how he selected to use ideology rather than philosophy, and he describes the alignment of his classification scheme with those of other researchers. Readers are encouraged at the beginning of the chapter to complete the inventory included in the appendix as a pre-assessment of their perspectives on curriculum.

For each of the four highlighted ideologies, Schiro provides a chapter that follows a specified structure. Each includes an overview of the ideology along with an example of how the ideology is enacted in current classroom practice. He details assumptions of the ideology and explains its historical context. Schiro explores the perspective of the given ideology in relation to the following topics:
• Aims
• Child
• Learning
• Teaching
• Knowledge
• Evaluation
Although this structure often results in unnecessary repetition of various ideas, readers likely will appreciate Schiro’s efforts to provide a multifaceted view the complexities surrounding each ideology. He embeds discussion related to current controversies in education. Issues explored have ramifications for all levels of education, including K-12 and post-secondary settings.

The sixth chapter provides a comparative overview of the four curriculum ideologies. Schiro compares and contrasts the ideologies, considering, for example, relationships between sources and uses of knowledge as well as relationships between objective and subjective reality. The ideologies are brought to life for readers through mini-plays that illustrate how teachers who hold beliefs reflective of each of the different ideologies might discuss various curricular issues related to their daily instruction.

In the final chapter of this text, Schiro encourages readers to revisit the Curriculum Ideologies Inventory to determine if any of their views have changed. He discusses educators’ curriculum life histories and explains a variety of factors that might lead an educator to emphasize different ideologies at different points in his or her career. He also addresses questions such as, “Can an educator simultaneously base his or her practice on more than one ideology?” Included in this thought-provoking chapter are short summaries of multiple educators’ journeys with curriculum ideologies that illustrate points discussed.

Overall, this text met my expectations and prompted me to engage in reflection on my views about curriculum and the role of education in general. I appreciated the additional sources on which Schiro based his discussions; at times, however, he relied too heavily on a given source. In addition, this text would benefit from thorough copyediting to correct the numerous typos that distracted from an otherwise well written book.
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Athletic Guy
1.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Repetitive. Poorly Written. No Practical Applicability. Stay Away.
Reviewed in the United States on December 17, 2017
This is one of the worst textbooks that I have ever been forced to slog through. It takes what should be a practical and interesting subject, twisting it into a brick of idiocy. By using a non-researched based stream of consciousness writing technique, that is filled with... See more
This is one of the worst textbooks that I have ever been forced to slog through. It takes what should be a practical and interesting subject, twisting it into a brick of idiocy. By using a non-researched based stream of consciousness writing technique, that is filled with repetitions of unsubstantiated suppositions, the author takes what should have been a 50-page thought experiment, and stretched it into an almost 300 "textbook." In the first chapter when I read, for the seventh time, about how the author believes that knowledge-scholars develop their curriculum based on their understanding of the discipline, I wanted to poke my eyes out. Unfortunately, I was on page 24, and that chapter had 31 pages left. If you are forced to buy this book because your professor does not like students, then pay someone to read it for you and to provide you with summary notes. If you are not forced to read it, then please do not read it. I cannot even begin to imagine how this book made it into a second edition.
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abdullah alrashed
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Like me, Learner Centered person believes that experiential knowledge ...
Reviewed in the United States on December 12, 2015
Asma Bin Ateeq Before reading Curriculum theory: conflicting visions and enduring concerns, I understood myself and my philosophy of education, but it had not yet been deepened by exposure to different and quite progressive ways of thinking and form my clear... See more
Asma Bin Ateeq

Before reading Curriculum theory: conflicting visions and enduring concerns, I understood myself and my philosophy of education, but it had not yet been deepened by exposure to different and quite progressive ways of thinking and form my clear philosophy. Now, my philosophy of education has become clearer and ethically aware and more willing to take appropriate risks also. I have a greater vision for my sense of place in the world, as a teacher and a facilitator of understanding, wisdom, grace, creativity, peace, and liberation from righteous ignorance. Schiro presents in his book a four curriculum ideologies Scholar Academic Ideology, Social Efficiency Ideology, Learner Centered Ideology, and Social Reconstruction Ideology. In each ideologies has discussed the overview of the ideology, history, aims, the child, learning, knowledge, teaching, and evaluation. The last a couple chapters will be a comparison between the four ideologies and going more in depth of the individual perspective on the curriculum ideologies.
In Scholar Academic Ideology, chapter two, the teachers have to be experts about their subject. The teacher has to transfer all the knowledge to the students. Students would be required to memorize information and to learn in my opinion by rigid methods that were not serving them. Scholar Academic teachers are viewed the child as a mind and they are evaluating the children to check on them if they meet the standard.
Social Efficiency Ideology, in the chapter three, Schiro discussed the goal of this ideology which is training the citizens/students to meet the society needs. The educators who are believing in that are pushing their student to gain skills by doing and practice them. They are also view learning as process and throughout these process the students will be able to change and improve. The teacher here is a leader who is leading, controlling the students, and giving them formative and summative evaluation.
One clear ideologies that exemplifies these advantages and is an intellectual model to me is Learner Centered Ideology which is chapter four. It is the one that has had the most impact on me as an educator and a woman. I want to use and practice Learner Centered Ideology with my future kindergarten students because it is the closest match to my views on teaching, education, and schools as possible. Learner Centered believed in growth of individuals as an important way to develop children’s intrinsic capabilities. Like me, Learner Centered person believes that experiential knowledge is essential for all students. I, too, believe in the cultivation of experience of as a way to access greater brain and vision capacity. Through the process of learning, I believe that higher, more mysterious, intuitive, and free aspects of the brain’s functioning can be allowed to flow out. This can also help students to construct their knowledge through assimilation and accommodation. I feel a kinship with Learner Centered people because they are working in search of refinement of vision of each individual students. Learner Centered Ideology teaches us that children are capable of great things and that we should invest in them in the right ways, from where they are. To me, it is the closest match to me in terms of ideas about making progress in the field of education.
Social Reconstruction education model which is chapter five is imbued with the kind of sensitivity that is fit for our ever more multiracial and multicultural situations worldwide. It is suitable for the world as it is today, and more than that, it anticipates some of the doctrinal problems and imbalances, politically, religiously, and economically. Social reconstruction people are preparing themselves for the role of high-level social reformer. They are working really hard for experiencing the world. They believe in the knowledge as a way of developing sensitivity and empathy, and they have the foresight to see that it would act as a kind of bridge for intimate relationship with culture, environment, and people. Through education, people could come to appreciate aspects of other cultures while understanding their own cultural position. For me, this is a part of my philosophy and I would want my students to be able to understand themselves and their identity as well as their place in the world. There is a lot of world out there and I am really looking forward to opening my students’ eyes, beyond country, beyond cultural barriers.

Schiro’s ideas have had an impact in my own curriculum development and teaching style, such that the old ways of working with my students that has no certain ideology seem so thoughtless and obsolete. Ultimately, I hope that education at all levels would reach the point where Schiro hopes to take us, in which four philosophical visions can coexist for students and their teachers.
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Melia White
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Impact of Curriculum Ideologies on Educators'' Everyday Lives
Reviewed in the United States on December 8, 2015
Schiro’s second edition of this textbook is focuses and informative with an easy-to-read tone and style. It serves as an excellent resource for students studying the field of education and also for teachers looking to update their curriculum with an eye to learning how to... See more
Schiro’s second edition of this textbook is focuses and informative with an easy-to-read tone and style. It serves as an excellent resource for students studying the field of education and also for teachers looking to update their curriculum with an eye to learning how to blend curriculum ideologies or learn about others that may be relevant in their own lives. The book covers four main ideologies (Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Learner-Centered, and Social Reconstructionism) without bias toward any one ideology over the others. Each ideology has a dedicated chapter that provides discussion on the history, aims, the child, learning, teaching, knowledge, and evaluation for the respective ideology. Schiro gives perspective not only to each ideology’s beginnings but also to how it continues to impact curriculum in today’s education system. Though some information seems repetitive within a chapter, after closer inspection the reader sees the connection and reason for emphasizing the bits of information again to complete an arch of theory connection.
Rather than leaving the textbook with chapters covering each ideology only, Schiro additionally gives the reader a blended comparison of the four ideologies in Chapter 6 in a creative format of plays with a speaker representing each ideology together in a curriculum discussion. Chapter 7, the final chapter, concludes with thoughts on blending the different ideologies, providing case study examples of teachers who not only work within blended ideologies, but also who have changed their own ideology throughout their own education career. This particular chapter particularly serves as a guide for educators to understand, as Schiro explains in the Preface, “how their own personal educational philosophies have been shaped during their lives and how their beliefs might evolve during the future span of their careers” (p. xv). With its focus on teaching and ideologies in educators’ everyday lives and information about the context of each ideology, the book provides a strong foundation for both student and current educator seeking that guidance and support in their own development (or revision) of teaching philosophy.
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R2
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Great Intro Text for a Curriculum Theory Course!
Reviewed in the United States on July 2, 2015
As a Professor of doctoral level curriculum courses, I have used this book twice in the past two semesters successfully. Schiro does a great job introducing the curriculum conflicts of the past and structuring the content around four major curriculum ideologies: scholar... See more
As a Professor of doctoral level curriculum courses, I have used this book twice in the past two semesters successfully. Schiro does a great job introducing the curriculum conflicts of the past and structuring the content around four major curriculum ideologies: scholar academic, social efficiency, learner centered, and social reconstruction. The chapters on each ideology are organized in the same manner to help students compare and contrast major characteristics of the ideologies such as the aim, the child, learning, teaching, knowledge, and evaluation. The book also comes with a curriculum inventory that I give students at the very beginning of the course. It is a great way to discuss which ideology each student comes to class aligned with based on their past experiences and curriculum lens. Schiro also has extra resources online that you may find useful. For example, there is a unit on Christopher Columbus and how each ideology would address the same lesson differently. This is an eye opening activity for students. Lastly, historical elements of each ideology is addressed and there is a great chapter that examines how all of our ideologies have changed through our lives and that we are actually a mixture of the ideologies. I would HIGHLY recommend this book as an introduction text to Curriculum Theory!
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Teddy
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
The content of the books would be best suited for graduate students
Reviewed in the United States on December 5, 2015
Curriculum Theories: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns. Michael S. Chiro. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2013. 297 pp., (paper). ISBN-13: 978-1412988902 ISBN-10: 141298890X There are multiple unanswered questions and unresolved issues at... See more
Curriculum Theories: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns. Michael S. Chiro. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2013. 297 pp., (paper). ISBN-13: 978-1412988902 ISBN-10: 141298890X

There are multiple unanswered questions and unresolved issues at the forefront of education today. The lens from which they are viewed leads professionals and other stakeholders to a spectrum of approaches to educating children and the purpose of schools. Michael Chiro’s (2013) Curriculum Theories is an all-encompassing book that presents four ideologies in view of the historical and contemporary implications for the educational field within the scope of the Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Child Centered, and Social Reconstruction perspectives.
The first chapter presents an overview of the ideologies, giving the audience an opportunity for a brief review of the content. The last chapter offers a look at the experiences and changes in ideologies through several decades about professionals who worked as educators, administrators, and scholars. The journey of taking on a different role and the shifts in ideologies are clearly presented in the text and visually supported with reasons as to why the views of each professional changed. Chapter six is an engaging application of the ideologies in practice through several play scripts, emphasizing the perspective of each ideology on the child, learning, teaching, and other educational aims, expressed in statements that reflect the beliefs and values of those who adhere to a specific ideology. The appendix of the book offers the reader a brief survey to select their perspectives in relation to each ideology and to reflect on how it fits into their beliefs and practice about education. In addition, there are online resources that follow each chapter for further exploration of the content.
The essence of each ideology is presented in chapters two through five. The chapters describe each perspective, how it came into existence, and how it has evolved over a period of time. Chiro (2013) objectively examines the influence of a particular ideology and how it continues to shape the educational landscape in combination with other factors within the political and social spheres. Each chapter looks at the major originators and past and current proponents of each ideology, such as Charles W. Elliot, Franklin Bobbitt, John Dewey, and George Counts. Current issues such as high-stakes testing, teacher evaluation, learning process and student engagement are introduced and discussed, allowing the audience to connect with the way each ideology views them. Chiro (2013) thoroughly reviews each ideology and at times certain information can be found throughout the chapter repeated several times for grater emphasis.
The content of the books would be best suited for graduate students, curriculum administrators, and professional learning communities for discussion and reflection. The organization of each chapter is easy to adjust to and it follows a pattern for elements discussed in relation to each ideology, such as historical perspectives, goals, instruction, learning, and evaluation. One excellent feature in the appendix is a self-assessment of personal educational beliefs and philosophy that helps the reader to discover which ideology they identify with the most. This survey and the last chapter make an important point about the educator as a professional and an individual in terms of their role and contributions in the field. The combination of the comprehensive collection of each ideology and its characteristics to this self-assessment engages the audience in a meaningful reflection about current theory and personal practice in education.
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Meagan Peters
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Great Resource/Guide
Reviewed in Canada on September 13, 2017
Great resource for anyone interested in curriculum theory. Easy to apply to any education level, well organized and very informative.
Great resource for anyone interested in curriculum theory. Easy to apply to any education level, well organized and very informative.
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Terry N. Hart
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Curriculum: what you needed to know but were hesitant to ask.
Reviewed in Australia on August 25, 2018
The book was used in University studies and it filled this role very well. The information was concise and well-informed, a credit to the author.
The book was used in University studies and it filled this role very well. The information was concise and well-informed, a credit to the author.
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Wesley Matos Cidreira
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Recomendo
Reviewed in Brazil on February 28, 2020
Excelente livro. É caro, mas é bom.
Excelente livro. É caro, mas é bom.
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Amazon Customer
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Four Stars
Reviewed in Canada on November 1, 2015
Good.
Good.
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